Overview of JWH, WIN and CP Chemical Compounds
Overview of JWH Family
The JWH family of chemicals is the most common type of synthetic cannabinoids found in herbal blends that are marketed as smoking products. These herbal blends can be found in retail shops as well as online stores. Although JWH has been legal for several years, there is currently a control on JWH and products that contain any of the chemicals in the JWH family.
It is imperative to note that research on JWH compounds is very limited, however some of the compounds have more information than others. These synthetic cannabinoids were first developed in the early 1990s by an organic chemist named John W. Huffman who discovered and developed the compounds at Clemson University.
The prefix, JWH, indicates the indole family of synthetic cannabinoids. These include the aminoalkylindole and the napthoylindole families. When John W. Huffman first developed these compounds, the aim was to produce a substance that would target certain receptors in the body called the endocannabinoid receptors. The body has two receptors known as the CB1 and CB2 receptors. JWH chemicals are either agonists of one or both of these receptors. Below is an overview of the most commonly known JWH-XXX chemical compounds.
Types of JWH-XXX Chemical Compounds and Their Descriptions
This chemical is part of the naphthoylindole family of compounds and acts as a “subtype-selective cannabinoid” agonist JWH-015 is also referred to as: (2-Methyl-1-propyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1-naphthalenylmethanone . This compounds affinity for CB1 receptors is 383nM while its affinity for CB2 receptors is13.8nM
JWH-015 has 28 times more affinity for CB2 receptors than CB1. However, there is still some activity with CB1 receptors. The metabolism of JWH-015 includes epoxidation of the naphthalene ring. Epoxidation is a reaction that changes a compound into an epoxide. An epoxide is a cyclic ether. The ether has three-ring atoms, which makes the epoxide highly reactive. For related terms, one can think of epoxy resins which are generally used as adhesives. Although limited research has been conducted and there is lack of evidence, it is believed that JWH-015 can produce carcinogenic activity.
JWH-018 is also a chemical from the naphthoylindole family and is also referred to as Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone or 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole). JWH-018 is one of the most common chemical compounds found in products being sold as herbal incense. JWH-018 acts as a full agonist of CB1 as well as CB2 receptors.
According to research, the affinity for the CB1 receptor is five times greater than that of Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is found in cannabis. As a result, JWH-018 is a highly potent chemical compound. Studies show that once consumed by a human being, JWH-018 can cause negative effects including anxiety, paranoia, agitation and panic attacks. This places JWH-018 in a different category compared to other JWH compounds.
Like JWH-015, JWH-018 is also believed to produce carcinogenic activity, but there is no evidence to prove it.
JWH-073 is a third chemical compound from the naphthoylindole family. This chemical is also referred to as naphthalen-1-yl-(1-butylindol-3-yl)methanone. JWH-073 is a partial agonist to CB1 and CB2 receptors. According to research, JWH-073 is said to cause psychological effects and behavioral changes. These effects are similar to that of delta-9-THC in animals, but there is no presentable research of effects on human beings.
It has been show that JWH-073, when binded to CB1 receptors, has a higher affinity than THC. In addition to JWH-015 and JWH-018, JWH-073 is also believed to produce carcinogenic activity. It is important to approach this chemical and the preceding ones with caution for this very reason.
JWH-081 is a fourth chemical compound from the naphthoylindole family. This compound is also called 4-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl-1-pentylindol- 3-yl)methanone. JWH-081 acts as an agonist to CB1 receptors and CB2 receptors. The affinity of the highly selective CB1 subtype is about ten times as much the affinity to CB2. The JWH-018 compound also contains the naphthalene ring.
JWH-200 is a chemical compound from the aminoalkylindole family. This compound is also called (1-(2-morpholin-4-ylethyl)indol-3-yl)-naphthalen-1-ylmethanone (also known as WIN 55,225) and acts as cannabinoid receptor agonist to CB1. JWH-200s affinity to CB1 receptors is 42nM which about how much THC is. However, JWH-200 has three times more the analgesic effect of THC. With that said, it causes less sedation.
JWH-250 is the last known chemical compound in the list and is from the phenylacetylindole family. This also known as 2-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)ethanone. JWH-250 acts as an agonist of CB1 as well as CB2 receptors. Its affinity to CB1 receptors is 11nM while its affinity to CB2 receptors is 33nM.
JWH-250 is one of the newer compounds in the family and does not carry the naphthalene ring. Because of this JWH-250 tends to be used as a substitute for JWH-018 where JWH-018 is banned.
The Effects of JWH-XXX Chemical Compounds
Although they are all in the same family, JWH chemical compounds each have their own effects on certain organisms. These effects are not significantly different and these depend on the potency levels. The effects of JWH can be grouped together under both positive and negative categories.
The positive effects include euphoria, uplifted mood, sedation, relaxation, a heightened sense of humor, creative sensitivity, time distortion, and anti-depressant properties. On the negative side, the effects include anxiety, agitation, paranoia, eye redness, dry mouth and increased appetite. Although most of the chemical compounds produce positive effects, the one compound that is most responsible for negative effects is JWH-018. According to most people who have experienced the effects, JWH compounds are highly similar to the effects of THC.
JWH Dosage and Duration of Effects
In general, JWH chemical compounds used in herbal blend products are highly potent and weighty. The high potency makes them quite active at very minimal levels. The difference in dosage among the six known compounds is not significantly different. The only difference can be measured in a thresholds.
The dosage is also different when the product is being smoked or taken orally. This also has an impact on the duration of the effects. Below is a break down of each compound, its average dosage and duration of effects.
Smoking or Vaporization
Duration: 1-3 hours
Duration: 2-4 hours
Smoking or Vaporization
Duration: 1-2 hours
Duration: 2-3 hours
Smoking or Vaporization
Duration: 1-2.5 hours
Smoking or Vaporization
Duration: 2-3 hours
Smoking or Vaporization
Duration: .5-1.5 hours
Method of Consumption
JWH chemical compounds are typically smoked or are vaporized, with the latter method being the most recommended due to the fact that less of the active chemical gets destroyed. Aluminum foil can be used for vaporization. Those who choose to smoke the compounds are advised to use a glass bowl. Another method is to wrap the product in paper for smoking. Oral consumption requires chewing the product, but is not the most recommended method. Most users of products containing JWH chemical compounds have their own preferred method.
A note of precaution: It is best to accurately measure the products rather than eyeballing the dosage. This is to ensure that the body does not react negatively to the products.
Overview of WIN Chemical Compound Families
The WIN family of cannabinoids is highly potent chemical compounds that are continuing to be researched. These chemicals were first considered to be anti-inflammatory and analgesic derivatives of drugs. In the 1980s, the WIN family of cannabinoids was developed as anti-inflammatory and what are called prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors.
The amount of research surrounding the WIN family is highly limited. Below is an overview of three of the most commonly known compounds of the WIN family along with a description of each one.
Types of WIN Chemical Compounds and Their Descriptions
WIN 55, 212-2 is a chemical also referred to as an aminoalkylindole derivative, which is also described as: (R)-(+)-[2,3-Dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de)-1,- 4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-napthalenylmethanone. WIN 55, 212-2 is said to produce effects that are similar to that of THC in cannabis. However, the chemical makeup is completely different. This chemical compound is a cannabinoid receptor agonist and a potent one at that. It has also been discovered that WIN 55,212-2 is a potent analgesic in a model of neuropathic pain in rats.
WIN 55,212-2 is said to be a full agonist at the CB1 receptor with an affinity for the CB1 higher than that of THC. According to studies, WIN 55, 212-2 can potentially prevent inflammation that is caused by certain proteins, called Amyloid beta proteins, which are present in Alzheimer’s Disease.
WIN 48, 098
WIN 48, 098 is another chemical compound in the WIN family and is also referred to as Pravadoiline. This chemical compound was first created to be a new anti-inflammatory and prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. After the development, research showed that Pravadoline causes strong analgesic effects. The effects were exhibited at smaller doses than the regular effective anti-inflammatory dose, ten times smaller to be exact. This helped show that it is not a COX inhibitor. Furthermore, Pravadoline has not been labeled as an analgesic anymore because it is thought to be toxic.
With further research, it has been shown that WIN 48, 098 is a chemical compound in the group of synthetic cannabinoids. Interestingly enough, the discovery of WIN 48,098 helped uncover the chemical compound WIN 55,212-2 mentioned above.
WIN 55,225 is another chemical compound in the WIN family and is an analgesic chemical. Part of the aminoalkylindole family, WIN 55,225 acts as a cannabinoid receptor agonist. Its affinity at the CB1 receptor, which is 42nM, is approximately the same as the affinity at the CB1 receptor of THC. WIN 55,255 has is now called the same name as JWH-200.
The Effects of WIN Chemical Compounds
With the research conducted, it has been shown that WIN chemical compounds, namely the WIN 55,212-2 chemical compound, produce effects that are almost the same as the effects of THC. However, the effects of WIN chemicals are said to be less strong and with a shorter duration. Some reports have helped conclude that the effects are the same as THC.
WIN Dosage and Duration of Effects
Unlike JWH chemical compounds, information regarding the dosage and duration of WIN chemicals is less extensive. When taken orally or through insufflation, the dosage is 1 to 3mg. The duration of effects lasts anywhere from 1-1.5 hours or 1-3 hours.
Method of Consumption
Products containing WIN chemical compounds are generally consumed orally, through insufflation and sometimes injections. When heat is applied to these substances, the properties of the chemicals are diminished, this means that it is not possible to smoke the products in order to achieve the desired effects.
Note of Precaution: It is said that the WIN family of chemical compounds require more safety and precaution than JWH compounds.
Overview of CP Family of Chemical Compounds
The CP family of chemical compounds were first developed by the Pfizer research company in the 19070s. Despite the development, these chemicals have not bee publicized. While JWH and WIN chemicals are slightly more potent than THC, the CP compounds are much more potent.
CP chemicals are being used to conduct research on the endocannabinoid system today. Specifically speaking, these chemicals developed by Pfizer are aiding scientists to research the endocannabinoid system and its relationship with inflammation and pain. There have been a number of CP chemicals developed by Pfizer but not all are synthetic cannabinoids. When Pfizer discovered the CP chemicals, they were the first synthetic cannabinoids to be used in Spice herbal blends in 2006 through 2008.
Similar to JWH and WIN, there is a limited supply of research surrounding the CP family of chemicals. Below is an overview of the commonly known types along with a description for each.
Types of CP Chemical Compounds and Their Descriptions
CP 47, 497
CP 47, 497 is a chemical compound in the CP family and is a synthetic cannabinoid. This chemical is also referred to as 2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]- 5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol. It is categorized as a non-classical cannabinoid receptor agonist. CP 47, 497 has a potent affinity at the CB1 receptor with a Kd of 2.1nM. This chemical has analgesic properties. It also produces effects similar to that of THC but the strength of this chemical is much stronger than THC.
CP 47,497 C8
CP 47,497 C8 is a second chemical compound in this family and is one of the more popular types in its class. It is also known as Cannabicyclohexanol as it is the dimethyloctyl homologue of CP 47,297. What gave this chemical its reputation is the fact that it was used as an active ingredient in Spice blends in 2009. This homologue has been said to be one of the most potent cannabinoid agonists for creating effects similar to THC. In fact, it is considered to be much more potent than THC.
CP 55, 940 is a third chemical compound in the family and is also known as 2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol. This is also a highly potent and nonclassical cannabinoid agonist. When compared to THC, CP 55,940 is up to 45 times more potent. This chemical is a full agonist at CB1 receptors as well as CB2 receptors. It is also an antagonist at CPR55, which is also known as the CB3 receptor.
CP 55, 244 is a fourth chemical compound in the family and is also known as (2S,4S,4aS,6R,8aR)-6-(hydroxymethyl)-4-[2-hydroxy-4-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenyl]-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-decahydronaphthalen-2-ol. It is also a highly potent chemical and a nonclassical cannabinoid. It is highly potent at CB1 receptors and is a full agonist of CB1 and has a Ki of .21nM.
CP 50,556-1 is the fifth known chemical compound in the family and is actually a synthetic cannabinoid analog of the commonly known medication called dronabinol (Marinol). CP 50,556-1 is also called Levonantradol, which has not been an FDA approved medication, and was first developed by Pfizer. As one of the most potent chemicals in the CP family, this chemical is thirty times more potent than THC. It also produces anti-emetic and analgesic effects once it is activated at CB1 and CB1 receptors.
The Effects of CP Chemical Compounds
The amount of information regarding the effects of CP chemicals is highly limited. What is available through research is that the effects of this family of chemicals are highly similar to that of THC. The effects depend on the dosage and body weight, but reports have shown that the effects may include confusion, a sense of focus, sedation. Some negative effects include drowsiness with a lack of focus the following day.
CP Dosage and Duration of Effects
Reports from users show that the common dosage for CP chemicals can be as low as .25mg and still produce a good amount of effects. Typically speaking, the average dosage is 1-3mg. The dosage will be different depending on the method of consumption.
Method of Consumption
The most suitable method of consumption for CP chemicals has yet to be concluded and there is scarce research to show it. Some users have taken the product orally while others have been able to smoke it.
Note of Precaution: It is important to note that there is no conclusive research providing information on the toxicity of CP chemicals. In addition to the toxicity, there is no information regarding the dangers of these chemicals either and further research must be conducted.